These references will provide a deeper understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of Accelerated Literacy.



Bell, J. (2002) Scaffolding Literacy. Practically Primary (Vol 25, Number 2). Adelaide, South Australia: Australian Literacy Educators Association.

A case study into scaffolding literacy

Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Background information related to scaffolding

Cazden, C.B. (2001) Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning (second edition), Portsmouth NH: Heinemann.

Teaching routines and the relevance of Concentrated Language Encounters

Gee, J. (1990) Social Linguistics and Literacies: Ideology in Discourses. Basingstoke, Hampshire: The Falmer Press.

Discourse and its relevance to Accelerated Literacy

Gray, B. (1985) Helping Children to Become Language Learners in the Classroom. In, M. Christie (ed.), Aboriginal Perspectives on Experience and Learning: The Role of Language in Aboriginal Education. Geelong, Vic: Deakin University Press.

Background to the Traeger Park program

Gray, B. (1987) How Natural is 'Natural' Language Teaching: Employing Wholistic Methodology in the Classroom. Australian Journal of Early Childhood. 12:4:3-19.

Whole language and its shortcomings

Gray, B. (1998) Accessing the Discourses of Schooling: Language and Literacy Development with Aboriginal Children in Mainstream Schools. PhD Thesis, University of Melbourne.

Background to the Traeger Park program

Gray, B. & Cazden, C. (1992) Concentrated Language Encounters: International Biography of a Curriculum Concept, Joint Plenary Address, 26th Annual TESOL Convention, Vancouver Convention Centre, Vancouver B.C. Canada, March 3-7 1992

Background to the Traeger Park program

Gray, B. (1982) Developing language and literacy with Aboriginal children in urban schools. Paper presented to the 7th annual conference of the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia, Perth.


Gray, B. (1986) Creating a Context for the Negotiation of Written Text. In, Literacy: Text and Context, selected papers of the 12th Australian Reading Conference, Perth: Australian Reading Association.


Gray, B. (1990) Natural Language in the Aboriginal Classroom: Reflections on Teaching and Learning Style for Empowerment in English, Chapter 11 in, C. Walton and W. Eggington (eds.), Language: Maintenance, Power and Education, Darwin: Northern Territory University Press.


Gray, B., and Cowey, W. (1997) High Order Book Orientation-the lion and the mouse: a Practical Example of How to Prepare for Successful Reading. Canberra: Schools and Community Centre, University of Canberra.


Hammond, J. (1990) Is Learning to Read and Write the Same as Learning to Speak. In F. Christie (ed.), Literacy for a Changing World. Hawthorn, Vic: Australian Council for Educational Research.

The difference between oral and written language

Heath, S. B. (1986). Literacy and Language Change. In D. Tannen & J. E. Alatis (Eds.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 1985. Language and Linguistics:The Interdependence of Theory, Data, and Application (pp. 282-293). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Discourse and its relevance to Accelerated Literacy

McRae, D., Ainsworth, G., Cumming, J., Hughes, P., Mackay, T., Price, K., Rowland, M., Warhurst, J., Woods, D., & Zbar, V. (2000) What Works: Explorations in Improving Outcomes for Indigenous Students. A report prepared for the Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Australian Curriculum Studies Association and National Curriculum Services.

IESP project report

Nicholson, T. (1984). The process of reading : an introduction to theory and practice in the teaching of reading. Cammeray: Horwitz Grahame Books.

Learning to read

Pressley, M. (2002) Reading Instruction that Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching. Second Edition, New York: Guilford Press.

Learning to read

Rogoff, B. (1990) Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. NY: Oxford University Press

Cognitive development

Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. B. K. (1981). The Literate Two-Year-old: The Fictionalisation of Self. In R. O. Freedle (Ed.), Narrative, Literacy and Face in Interethnic Communication (Vol. 7, pp. 57-98). Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Publishing Corporation.

Aquiring language

Stanovich. K.E. (1986) Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360-406.

'The good get better and the bad get worse'

Vygotsky, L. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman, eds). Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.


Vygotsky, L. (1986) Thought and Language (A. Kozulin, ed.). Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.


Wertsch, J. V. (1984) The Zone of Proximal Development: Some Conceptual Issues, in, B. Rogoff & J. V. Wertsch, (eds). Children’s Learning in the Zone of Proximal Development. New Directions for Child Development, No. 23. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, March, 1983.


Wertsch, J. V. (1998) Mind as Action. New York: Oxford University Press.


Wood, D. (1980) Teaching the Young Child: Some Relationships Between Social Interaction, Language and Thought, in Olson, D,R. (ed) The Social Foundations of Language and Thought, NY: W. W. Norton & Company.


Wood, D., Bruner, J. & Ross, G. (1976) The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17. 89-100.